7 types of artificial intelligence: propelling technological development
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is more than just a buzzword, it’s a change. If one is supposed to remember the 21st century for anything, then it is absolutely artificial intelligence and the changes it has brought about. Ever since the idea of machines came into being and the word ‘artificial intelligence’ was coined at a summer conference at Dartmouth University, AI has had a significant impact on people’s lives. . Today, machines understand verbal commands, distinguish pictures, drive cars, play games, and more than humans. Will you believe it if I say that the AI applications we see today are just the tip of the AI iceberg? Yes, there is absolutely a whole mountain of applications that could be discovered in the future. Unfortunately, there are also threats. People are etched in fear that AI could soon capture the world and wipe out humanity like in the dystopian movies. We can’t deny it totally, but the development of AI depends on how humans train it. So much of the responsibility is in our hands to feed the AI with massive datasets. AI can be divided into four types,
• Responsive machines
• Limited memory
• Theory of Mind
AI can also be classified according to technology into three types,
• Narrow artificial intelligence (ANI)
• General Artificial Intelligence (AGI)
• Super Artificial Intelligence (ASI)
7 types of AI explained
Reactive machines are the most basic types of AI systems that perceive the world directly and act on what it sees. The computer is purely reactive and does not need to train memory or use past experience. AI researcher Rodney Brooks argued in a seminal article that we should only build this type of AI. For example, Deep Blue, IBM’s chess supercomputer that made a breakthrough by beating Grandmaster Garry Kasparov in 1997 was a reactive machine. It didn’t take pre-applied datasets or a search for previous matches. All he knows is how to play the game and the conditions. The computer moved chess pieces based on its intuition in real time and won the game.
Limited memory machines are ditto reactive machines added with historical data that will help them make decisions. Almost all of the machines we use today are memory-limited machines, powered by datasets. AI systems use deep learning and are trained by large volumes of data that they store in their memory to form a benchmark model for solving future problems. For example, an image recognition AI is trained to determine and label certain things like a cat or a dog from an image. It knows what a cat or dog looks like from previously trained data sets. Now it deactivates the corresponding images.
Theory of Mind
As the name suggests, Machine Theory of Mind represents an advanced class of technology and only exists as a concept. This type of AI requires a deep understanding of the feelings and behavior of people and things in an environment. Theory of mind is a critical technological improvement that sorts out people’s emotions, feelings, and thoughts. Although many improvements are made to reach this stage of AI, it is not completely finished. A concrete example of theory of mind is Kismet, designed in the late 1990s. Kismet can mimic and recognize human emotions.
Self-aware AI is exactly what is portrayed in AI movies. Critical AI bots that think for themselves and destroy humans are the ideology of self-aware AI. However, we cannot predict that everything could go wrong. There are also chances that futuristic AI will go hand in hand with humans. Although this is not possible at this time, conscious AI is on the priority list of many scientists. Tech figures like Elon Musk and Stephen Hawkings have constantly warned us about the evolution of AI that could reach the stage of self-awareness.
Narrow artificial intelligence (ANI)
Narrow Artificial Intelligence, also known as ‘AI of the Week’, is one of the most frequently experienced types of AI. This is something the tech world has accomplished. Every AI machine we use and see today comes from this realm, which operates under a limited set of constraints. For example, speech recognition AI is used to predict people’s voices based on the dataset they are trained with. The deep learning model constitutes the “Limited memory” type and similar tasks could be a case of “Reactive machines”.
General Artificial Intelligence (AGI)
Artificial general intelligence, also known as “strong AI”, enables a machine to apply knowledge and skills in different contexts. It more closely reflects human intelligence by providing opportunities for autonomous learning and problem-solving. In other words, AGI can successfully accomplish any intellectual task that a human being can. This is the kind of AI that sci-fi movies describe.
Super Artificial Intelligence (ASI)
Super Artificial Intelligence is something more advanced than a “strong AI” that could end the human race. They will not only replicate the multifaceted intelligence of human beings, but will be extremely better in everything. The UPS will be designed with better memory, faster data processing and analysis, and decision-making capabilities.
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